The promise of solar energy for small, rural communities, and particularly those recovering from the decline of the coal industry, is twofold: job creation, and revenue.
Money is flowing into solar energy— the Appalachian Regional Commission just funded a major regional solar financing program, and a massive solar farm may be coming to Martin County, Kentucky.
These projects are part of what advocates say is a regional trend towards a new green energy economy, and a boom in solar that’s currently financed by a whirlwind of venture capitalists, federal grants, and regional and local investors.
As the solar industry evolves from an idea to a reality, communities are both excited for the prospect of new opportunity – and wondering what kind of real economic change the solar industry will bring to rural communities.
A Massive Solar Farm on a Former Strip Mine
Edelen Renewables, spearheaded by Kentucky Democratic politician Adam Edelen, is planning a new two hundred megawatt, solar development on an abandoned mine site – the Martiki mine site in Martin County. With a planned 100,000 panels on a couple thousand acres, it’s a massive undertaking, set to happen on what was once a giant surface coal mine. The solar company is leasing land atop the old Martiki mine, and construction is slated to begin in 2022.
In many ways, it’s a dream scenario for advocates of abandoned mineland repurposing. In an opinion piece for the Kentucky Herald-Leader, Colby Hall, described the project as an example of hope of a “rural renaissance”. Hall is the executive director of economic development organization Shaping Our Appalachian Region (SOAR), whose board includes US Congressman Hal Rogers and Kentucky Governor Andy Beshear.
Hall’s article seems to suggest it’s full speed ahead for solar – what once was a dream, is becoming reality. But reality can be thorny.
Few places know that better than Martin County, Kentucky, which sits in the rural coalfields of east Kentucky, across the Big Sandy River from Mingo County, West Virginia. The county has a 34.4% poverty rate as of the 2019 Census, and has long dealt with job scarcity, declining tax revenue, and well-documented water infrastructure issues.
The project is billed as a massive achievement and investment in a place that desperately needs the resources. Edelen estimates the project will generate $300,000 per year in revenue for Martin County’s government, for a period of about thirty years. “At 200 megawatts it would be the largest solar project in Appalachia,” Edelen says, “and certainly the first large scale utility project on a reclaimed mountaintop removal site.”
Advocates say it’s a constructive way to repurpose damaged land. However, some community members say they need more information, and assurance the project will really benefit local people long-term.
New Industry, Old Patterns?
According to a survey of local residents, Martin Countians were excited to hear about the project. But they also have a few questions they want answered, before they throw their full support behind it.
“Understandably, people are a little bit skeptical of how it’s gonna affect that land, the wildlife that’s there,” says Elizabeth Stayton, a college student born and raised in Martin County, who helped to conduct the survey. “And also will it positively benefit people that live in Martin County?”
Stayton remembers being told that the site would bring 250 to 300 jobs to the county, which was an incredible number. “They kind of glazed over the part with that they’re 18 months, temporary jobs,” Stayton said.
While 18 month jobs are still better than no jobs, she knows young people in the county need more lasting promises if they’re going to stay. The promises to employ out-of-work coal miners were nice, too, and a popular framing for Appalachian economic development projects, but Stayton mentioned that there are lots of people needing good jobs in Martin County who have never mined coal – and that most local coal miners she’s aware of were laid off in the early 2000s, and have likely found work. As of 2021, there were only 26 Martin Countians left working in the coal industry.
Another element of public concern, Stayton said, is access to the site. The old Martiki mine site in Martin County, Kentucky has had an active afterlife. After many years as one of the largest employers in the county, described as “the second largest mountain-top strip mine in the United States” in 1982, the mine was retired and partially reclaimed. 18,000 acres of land remained privately owned, but some of that land was slowly retaken by Martin Countians with a need for open space to hunt, fish, and ride ATVs. Some graze their cattle there. There’s also an old graveyard at the site, which is overgrown.
“The people reclaimed that site,” Stayton said.
While there has been discussion of maintaining ATV right-of-way, it’s private land, Edelen says. And it’ll need a lot of improvements to be a safe worksite; a Public Service Commission hearing on the issue discussed the need for ground stabilization.
Losing access to that land is a real possibility, and one that, for some, echoes the old laws of mineral rights and broad form deeds – when the coal company could claim land rights. A 1981 study found that absentee landowners, mostly coal, timber, oil, and other large land-holding companies, owned 43% of Appalachian land; a new land study is currently underway to reassess those findings. University of Kentucky Researcher Karen Rignall works with the land study, and it’s that work around land access that piqued her interest in the Martin County Solar Project.
Community Solar Survey
To answer that question, Stayton and Rignall helped design and distribute a survey with Appalachian Citizens’ Law Center, local community activists and the local newspaper.. Respondents werewho were reached online and in person at various grocery and dollar stores in the county. They were, were told about the Martin County Solar Project and asked about both the county’s economic needs, and their own. In the community solar survey, 37% of respondents listed “Jobs” as the county’s most pressing need, followed closely by “clean water”. Many stated hopes that new industries would bring vocational training to the area
The survey is public, and Rignall hopes that it sends a signal to both Edelen Renewables and Martin County officials that the county’s people not only have opinions, but want to be consulted.
In a county where many feel let down by their representatives, and by perceived trails of broken promises, the project could make a difference by soliciting real community input – not just from elected leaders, but from ordinary people at the Dollar General. Rignall believes that community engagement is essential if renewable energy projects are to avoid falling into patterns the coal industry made familiar, and gain real community trust.
“So how do you leverage this kind of project, to make those kinds of investments, and really rethink the way development is done in these communities?” Rignall said.
Good Green Jobs
Josh Caudill is a union carpenter, a millwright by trade, and a former coal miner himself. He now wanders the state of Kentucky working on solar projects, building solar fields like the one coming to Martin County.
Caudill is quick to say he’s pro-coal, but believes solar power deserves to be a part of the energy mix. as a worker, he feels he’s built on skills he previously had, and has received training that’s allowed him to increase his earnings. That, he says, is because of his union, the Indiana/Kentucky/Ohio Regional Council of Carpenters. Says Caudill, one way to ensure the community benefits from a solar project is to hire…